Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Symptoms

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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of blood cancer . Also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia or acute lymphoid leukemia, it is the least common type of leukemia in adults. Here's what you need to know about symptoms, prognosis, survival rates, and treatment for ALL.

Wiki info

Several characteristic genetic changes lead to the creation of a leukemic lymphoblast. These changes include chromosomal translocations, intrachromosomal rearrangements, changes in the number of chromosomes in leukemic cells, and additional mutations in individual genes. Chromosomal translocations involve moving a large region of DNA from one chromosome to another. This move can result in placing a gene from one chromosome that promotes cell division to a more actively transcribed area on another chromosome. The result is a cell that divides more often. An example of this includes the translocation of C-MYC, a gene that encodes a transcription factor that leads to increased cell division, next to the immunoglobulin heavy- or light-chain gene enhancers, leading to increased C-MYC expression and increased cell division. Other large changes in chromosomal structure can result in placement of two genes directly next to each other. The result is the combination of two usually separate proteins into a new fusion protein. This protein can have a new function that promotes the development of cancer. Examples of this include the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene that combines two factors that promote blood cell development and the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene of the Philadelphia chromosome. BCR-ABL1 encodes an always-activated tyrosine kinase that causes frequent cell division. These mutations produce a cell that divides more often, even in the absence of growth factors.

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